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The letters or letter clusters that represent sounds are called:
Which of the following would be of equal concern whether a teacher were selecting a fiction book or a nonfiction book for use in the classroom?
The year in which the book was written
The author's style and use of language
The author's expertise in the subject
The author's use of symbolism and imagery
A teacher tells the class that gasoline prices rose sharply in 2005 when Hurricane Katrina wiped out more than a quarter of crude oil production in the United States. The economic principle being taught in this lesson is the effect of:
supply and demand.
The Maasai people of Kenya live in small villages but spend much of their time traveling great distances across the Serengeti Plains, following the cattle upon which they rely for sustenance. The Maasai are best described as:
Which of the following statements is NOT true?
The Earth rotates on its axis once every 24 hours.
A solar eclipse can only occur during a new moon.
The Moon rotates on its axis as it revolves around the Earth.
A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the Earth and the Sun.
Section 24: Sec Twenty Four (306 to 310) Details:ICTS Learning Behavior Specialist 1
Which of the following factors is most frequently linked with the development of social- emotional disorders in children?
chronic physical illnesses
pressure to conform with peer-group expectations
traumatic brain injury
abuse and/or neglect by caregivers
Which of the following elements of conversational behavior would be most difficult for an adolescent with a language disorder?
recognizing personal space
maintaining eye contact
Of the following, the most important purpose of instructional assessment should be to:
enable teachers to be continually aware of each student's standing in relation to the rest of the class.
serve as a motivational tool to prompt students to increase their effort in the classroom.
guide teachers' decision making regarding how best to promote optimal levels of learning and achievement.
serve as a basis for the teacher's annual performance evaluation.
A linguistically diverse group of young students has been learning the meaning of the words inside and outside. When the teacher assesses the students' understanding of the words, which of the following modes of response would be the most equitable for the children to use?
drawing a picture of the outside of their classroom
discussing both of the words in small groups
writing a list of objects that are inside the classroom
physically demonstrating the meaning of the words
A general educator has referred a student for special education assessment because the student exhibits frequent off-task and disruptive behavior. The teacher suspects that the child has Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). To determine whether the child has this condition, the pre-referral intervention team must seek assessment information from:
the school nurse.
the school social worker.
a special education teacher.
Section 25: Sec Twenty Five (311 to 314) Details:CTS Special Education General Curriculum
The teacher in the above example wants to give the student something he can manipulate to arrive at the correct answer. The student should be given:
Graph paper so he can properly align the numbers.
A blank page to make a visual representation of the problem.
A digital clock that can be manually moved forward.
At the beginning of the week, a special education teacher asked a group of students to generate a list of verbs that make visual or sound pictures. She suggests students think of verbs that mean ways of walking, talking, eating, sitting and playing. The students spend the remainder of the week compiling the list. They notice interesting verbs as they read books, remark on less common verbs they hear in conversation or on television and locate interesting verbs in signs, magazines and other printed materials. One child begins to draw pictures to illustrate some of the verbs. Two children collaborate to create a play in which they demonstrate some of the verbs in a dance. A boy writes a song incorporating the list of verbs. The project is extremely successful. At the end of the week the students have created the following list:
TIPTOE, SCOOT, MUMBLE, MUNCH, LEAP, SPIN, DIVE, POUNCE, GLIDE, SLITHER, MOAN, WHISPER, GRUMBLE, NIBBLE, SHRILL, HOLLER, PERCH, LEAN, STOMP, MARCH, GIGGLE, HOP, STRUT, SLOUCH, GULP, HOWL, WHINE, SLURP, CROUCH, DRIBBLE, DROOL, HOOT, YELP, YOWL, GROWL, WHISTLE, SHRIEK, SNICKER, INSULT, COMPLIMENT, PLEAD, BARK, WIGGLE, TWIST, SLINK, TODDLE, TRUDGE, WANDER, STROLL
The teacher's goal is to:
Enhance students' understanding of theme by encouraging them to make connections between categories of verbs.
Enhance students' vocabulary by encouraging them to find examples in the world around them.
Enhance students' understanding of context by encouraging them to explore verbs for contextual clues.
Enhance students' sense of curiosity by directing their attention to a number of different resources they may not have considered.
In the previous example, how could the teacher extend the lesson and apply it across the curriculum?
Create a Word Wall with the words the students collected.
Have students work on a class dictionary, putting the words in alphabetical order and explaining what they mean.
Ask students to create a chart noting which verbs have 1, 2 or 3 syllables, which verbs contain double letters, which verbs are also nouns and which verbs have common word-endings.
All of the above.
A middle school Language Arts teacher begins each class with 10 minutes of journal writing. Students are free to write about whatever they choose. She reminds them this is the perfect place to react to something they've read, write about a problem and try to think of solutions, track a project they've undertaken and otherwise interact honestly with themselves. The teacher should periodically:
Collect the journals and select an entry to edit; this will show the student how his writing can improve.
Suggest new and innovative ways students can use their journals, including automatic writing, found poetry, lists, and collages.
Collect and review the journals to identify students at risk for drugs, alcohol or sexual abuse.
Say nothing about the journals during the school year. They are intensely private and discussing them in any way with the students violates trust.
By Elizabeth Srejic
On any given day approximately 1 in 25 patients contracts at least one healthcare-associated infection (HAI) in a hospital or other healthcare setting.1 Lowering the incidence of HAI could potentially reduce a multitude of steep human and financial costs -- namely illness, disability, mortality and billions of dollars in unnecessary healthcare expenses.2-3 Healthcare organizations, healthcare workers (HCWs), patients and other stakeholders look to infection preventionists (IPs) to tackle the problem of HAI in healthcare facilities. In meeting this challenge, IPs must rely upon their education, skills, training and experience. Becoming certified is one of the leading ways that IPs can formally demonstrate that they are committed to maintaining strong competencies, immersing themselves in the latest implementation science and providing quality leadership.
IPs can earn the CIC® credential, currently the only recognized professional certification for IPs, by passing an examination administered by the Certification Board of Infection Control and Epidemiology, . (CBIC), an organization founded in 1981 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, . (APIC) to develop, administer and promote an accredited certification program for competent IPs. CBIC, which is accredited by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies, identifies itself as an independent, voluntary, autonomous, multidisciplinary board dedicated to protecting the public by providing a standardized measurement of competency in the infection prevention and control profession. According to CBIC, the CIC® credential is currently held by more than 5,800 individuals working in a variety of healthcare settings worldwide who are responsible for developing, implementing and analyzing strategies to fight HAI and educating HCWs and the public on infection prevention and control.
Experts have called the CIC® credential the most recognized and accepted standard in the field of infection prevention and control and an important way to identify healthcare professionals who have demonstrated mastery of knowledge in the profession.4 One such expert, Carol McLay, DrPH, MPH, RN, CIC, an infection prevention consultant, says that beyond these benefits, certification provides IPs with an objective means to develop their careers.
"The field of infection prevention and control is expanding rapidly and the current Ebola crisis in West Africa is drawing attention to the role of IPs and will result in higher demand for competent professionals," she says. "Professional development is critical to keep knowledge and skills current in order to enhance your facility’s infection prevention and control program and provide the safest patient care possible. The CIC® credential shows a commitment to best practices in infection prevention and control and improved patient care and signals to your employer and colleagues that you are committed to your professional growth and obtaining and maintaining certification is one of the most important contributions you can make to the advancement of the field.”
According to CBIC, passing the CIC® examination requires mastery of six core competencies or major content areas including identification of infectious disease processes, surveillance and epidemiologic investigation, preventingcontrolling the transmission of infectious agents, employeeoccupational health, management and communication (leadership), and education and research. According to a report, CBIC determines these core competencies based upon a body of common knowledge derived from periodic, scientific analysis of real-world practice in the infection prevention and control profession within the United States and Canada and the CIC® examination measures the test-taker’s knowledge against this body of common knowledge.5
In order to earn eligibility to take the CIC® examination, candidates must fulfill certain practice and education requirements. For example, they must have a minimum of two years practice in infection control with a minimum of 800 hours worked prior to the date of the examination and hold a current license or registration as a medical technologist, physician or registered nurse. They must also possess a minimum of a baccalaureate degree although CBIC states this can be waived in some cases. To maintain the CIC® credential, the infection prevention and control professional must retake and pass the examination every five calendar years.
APIC offers a number of educational resources and member networks to assist candidates taking the CIC® examination for the first time or recertifying. One of these resources is a study guide designed to prepare candidates for the examination.6 The fifth edition of this study guide, released in late 2014, contains 630 practice questions covering areas of content identified by CBIC as well as practice tests that simulate the test experience.
“I would definitely recommend the Certification Study Guide to help candidates prepare for the CIC exam,” says McLay, author of the fifth edition of the study guide. “We have completely redesigned the study guide and have included new practice questions that review the six content areas identified by the CBIC practice analysis. In addition there are three full-length practice exams with rationales and references for every question. Test-taking tips and chapter-by-chapter guidance on optimal ways to study and succeed make the book a must-have for those seeking certification.”
According to published peer-reviewed research, certified individuals regardless of their educational background tend to outperform their noncertified counterparts in terms of reduced infection rates and other encouraging outcomes.7 For example, multiple studies authored by Krein, et al. reported that certified IPs may be better prepared to use quantitative and qualitative research in, and successfully drive the implementation of, infection control practices, and act as champions of patient safety in their organizations.8-10
McLay agrees with the findings of these and similar studies: "There are indications that certified individuals outperform their noncertified counterparts," she says. "A 2013 study found that IPs with the CIC® credential are two to three times more likely to perceive the evidence behind certain infection prevention practices as strong, compared to their non-certified peers.11 In further support of this statement, hospitals whose infection prevention and control programs are led by CIC® have significantly lower rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections than those that are not led by a certified professional.“12
Fortunately for those pursuing careers in infection prevention and control, experts say that the field has never been as publically recognized and appreciated, nationally and internationally, as it is today.13 One of these experts is McLay, who connects recent high-profile infectious disease crises to the widespread increased acknowledgement of the profession's importance.
"Over the last decade or so, outbreaks of antimicrobial resistant organisms such as MRSA, SARs, MERS and most recently Ebola have really catapulted infection prevention into the limelight of public attention," she says. "My hope is that this will result in increased funding to the public health infrastructure and more specifically, infection prevention and control departments that have been underfunded and under-appreciated for so long."
Beyond improving the IP's ability to address challenges in modern infection control, validate competency to lead, and demonstrate commitment to the profession, colleagues, patients, and facility,14 McLay says another compelling reason to get certified is that employers are increasingly looking for credentialed IPs. "In the future, I believe that the CIC® credential will become the minimum standard for employment in the field of infection prevention," she says. "Patients deserve a safe and infection-free healthcare experience and the CIC® credential demonstrates the IP’s commitment to best practices and professional growth. Given the choice, wouldn’t you hire an IP with the CIC® credential?"
For more information, visit .cbic and ic.
Elizabeth Srejic is a freelance writer for ICT.
References1. “The Direct Medical costs of Healthcare-Associated Infections in U.S. Hospitals and the Benefits of Prevention.” Scott II, R. Douglas. March 1, 2009. Accessed December 10, 2014.
At the culmination of the CTI coaching process, successful startups receive the CTI Label, a significance of maturity and readiness to enter the market. The label is awarded by the CTI Start-up Label Certification Board (composed of seasoned entrepreneurs and experts). In the previous edition four startups stemming from varying sectors were awarded the Label. These include;
Battrion AG, LucerneBattrion is a Swiss spin-off of ETH Zurich and works closely with the Laboratory for Nanoelectronics at ETH. Battrion develops and markets innovative fabrication technologies for lithium ion batteries aimed at increasing the charging speed of high energy density cells. By innovating on a single step in the industrial battery manufacturing processes, the patented Battrion technology improves the microstructure of the negative electrode, which constitutes the bottleneck for fast charging. The Battrion technology platform allows cell manufacturers to meet the growing performance, cost and safety requirements.
Perspective Robotics AG, ZurichPerspective robotics developed Fotokite Phi, a light-weight tethered quadcopter for GoPro cameras developed based on the technology that CEO Sergei Lupashin demonstrated on the TED stage in 2014. It is a user-friendly quadcopter with a unique take on safety for both the operator and the people nearby. Thanks to the attached tether, there is a physical connection between the operator and the Fotokite allowing the quadcopter to stay in place as the operator moves. Fotokite quadcopter's are currently being used by major news outlets such as the BBC for their broadcast coverage and special programming.
S. NOW SA, MontreuxFeedbackNow is a simple real time satisfaction system which enables customers to rate any product or service instantaneously. S. NOW, the startup behind FeedbackNow designed a Hardware system called “Smiley box”. This can be placed at any location in the reach of customers to enable them to rate a product or service immediately after purchase or use. The sooner the feedback is provided the more accurate and honest it is likely to be. Consequently, the results enable companies to improve their service level on the basis of this direct client feedback, which in the long run results into better services. Moreover FeedbackNow promotes awareness among employees about how their service is perceived. The Smile box is applicable in any branch, whether in retail, entertainment, travel, financial sector or in the medical sector.
T3 Pharmaceuticals AG, BaselFounded in 2015 as a spin-off of Basel, T3pharma is pre-clinical Pharmaceutical company specialising in the development of new generation treatments for cancer patients. The t3Pharma team developed an efficient protein delivery technology (protein delivery nanomachine) based on the use of live bacteria. This technology allows for a fast, synchronized, homogenous and efficient protein delivery directly into any available cell lines and is designed to serve as a novel therapeutic to treat solid tumours.
Despite efforts being put in place by the Nigerian government to curb cybercrimes, the perpetrators seem to be having a field day. But stakeholders say increased collaboration and awareness are necessary for a meaningful anti-cybercrime war. KUNLE AZEEZ reports
Globally, the month of October of every year is dedicated to series of activities aimed at sensitising Internet users on the nefarious proclivities of cybercrime trends.
This has become necessary, as studies have shown the correlation between increased access to the Internet and the level of sophistication are usually triggered as a result of access to a more high-speed Internet access in a country. Everyday, people are spending more time online – at home and at work – than ever before.
Thus, the growing dependence on technology, coupled with the increasing threat of cyberattacks and risks to people privacy, demands greater security in our online world.
It is instructive that in Nigeria, series of events were organised to assess the level of cybercrimes in the country, it economic losses, level of awareness among legitimate Internet users and state of industry collaborations as well as measures needed to be taken to ensure cybercrime cases get reduced in the country.
Various studies and authorities both nationally and globally have thrown up different figures bothering on the losses being recorded to cybercrimes. Speaking at the National Cyber Security Awareness Month Event organised by American Embassy, Lagos, Chairman, Cyber Security Experts Association of Nigeria (CSEAN), Remi Afon, chronicles the extent of losses to cybercrimes.
Cybercrime has now surpassed illegal drug trafficking as a criminal money-maker according to Symantec, a research firm, which also notes that somebody’s identity is stolen every three seconds as a result of cybercrime.
A study by another research firm, Verizon, found that 89 per cent of breaches had a financial or espionage motive while Forbes projects that cybercrime costs would reach $2 trillion by 2019. Cybersecurity Ventures also forecasts that cybercrime damages are expected to cost the world $6 trillion by 2021. In Nigeria, there has been increase in online presence, as there are currently over 97 million Nigerian Internet users, according data from the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC).
Also, between 2012 and 2014, Nigeria lost N64billionn to cybercrimes while N127 million was lost yearly to cybercrime, according to the Office of the National Security Adviser (NSA). Yet, Ultrascan, another tech-focused research firm, found that the cost of cybercrime originating from Nigeria globally is valued $9.3 billion.
Internet access Vs. higher crimes
Meanwhile, as telecoms companies in Nigeria commence rolling out the latest highspeed Internet networks across the country, stakeholders and experts believe more access to the Internet could mean increased cybercrimes, if appropriate measures is not taken to stem the tide of cybercriminal activities. The latest high-speed Internet networks are the fourth generation Long Term Evolution (4G-LTE) networks being launched by the telecoms companies to deepen Internet speed and widen broadband availability and accessibility in the country.
It is projected that as 4G-LTE continues to extend across the country, making more Nigerians have access to high-speed Internetbroadband, there is tendency for cyber-criminal activities to get sophisticated.
“The more Internet access expands, the more access will hackers and online fraudsters have to perpetrate more sophisticated cyber crimes,” Afon said. With mobile broadband penetration currently standing at 20 per cent threshold in Nigeria, the country is targeting to reach 30 per cent penetration by 2018 in line with the country’s National Broadband Plan.
Latest data from the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) show mobile Internet users in the country has reached over 93 million Internet users in the country. Also speaking at the event, Executive Vice Chairman of NCC, Prof Umar Danbatta, said the tendency was for cyber crimes to increase if nothing concrete is done to curb the trend, as the country begins 4G-LTE revolution with unhindered access to the Internet.
He explained that the expected explosion in high-speed Internet access also meant “both those who use Internet for legitimate and illegitimate businesses will now have increased access to the Internet.” While reckoning that trillion of transactions are now carried out online by individuals, businesses and the governments these days, Danbatta said there was a need to ensure that “all hands are on deck to minimise the use of the expected explosion in Internet access through 4G-LTE network rollout for wrong purposes such as using to commit cybercrimes.”
Cybercrime Act to the rescue?
While noting that though the country has passed the Nigerian Cybersecurity Act 2015 into law, Danbatta said thorough implementation of the provisions of the Act was key to sanitising the country’s cyber space. In the same vein, the President and Chairman, Certification Board, Computer Forensics Institute, Nigeria (CFIN), Dr. Peter Olu Olayiwola, said there is a need for Nigeria to ensure effective implementation of the Cybercrime Act 2015. He added that this effort will require total collaboration between the legal profession and professionals in the digital, mobile and computer forensics.
Collaboration and awareness
Also speaking at the US Embassy event, Chairman, Information Security Society of Africa – Nigeria, Dr. David Isiavwe, said collaboration was the new watchword in the new 4G-LTE era as “everyday, the Internet is hacked constantly. Danbatta also stated that the NCC has been playing a major role in creating awareness and educating the general public on issues of cyber security through sponsorship and support of various awareness campaigns organised by cybersecurity organisations.
Also speaking at the national computer science conference on cyber security & the emerging African economies at Igbinedion University, Edo State, Nigeria’s Minister of Communications, Adebayo Shittu, called for increased awareness of ICT and cyberspace stakeholders on the need and possible strategies for combating and defeating cybercrime in all its ramifications as well as reduction of the risk of data breaches and financial losses, among others.
While noting that “all around the globe, we have seen individuals, companies and governments become the victims of cyberattacks,” the US Consul General in Nigeria, John Bray, said that cyber awareness is everyone’s responsibility, calling on everyone to “join in cybersecurity awareness efforts across the country.” He advocated robust collaborations and awareness creation among various stakeholders in Nigeria and beyond to stem the tide of cybercrimes globally.
ERIC Number: ED500287
Record Type: Non-Journal
Publication Date: 2008-Feb
Reference Count: 3
Setting Standards on the Core and Advanced iSkills[TM] Assessments. Research Memorandum
Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Katz, Irvin R.
Educational Testing Service
This report documents a standard-setting study to determine recommended minimum scores (cut scores) needed on the Core and Advanced iSkills[TM] assessments for examinees to be considered at a foundational level of ICT literacy skill. Two foundational levels--one for each iSkills assessment--had been specified previously by the National ICT Literacy Policy Council, a group that was formed by the National Forum on Information Literacy (
Educational Testing Service. Rosedale Road Mailstop 19R, Princeton, NJ 08541-0001. Tel: 609-921-9000; Fax: 609-734-5410; Web site:
Publication Type: Reports - Descriptive; TestsQuestionnaires
Education Level: High Schools; Higher Education
ing Institution: Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.